Hawaiian

Puzzle by V. Belikov. English adaptation by Valentin Vydrin and Thomas E. Payne

Forty years ago, Hawaiian was nearly extinct even though there were 250,700 ethnic Hawaiians in Hawaii, and 150,000 on the USA Mainland. Hawaiians had simply forgotten how to speak their language because of the dominance of English. Today there are 1,000 fluent speakers in Hawaii, and 8,000 more can speak and understand it. This resurgence of interest in Hawaiian is due at least partly to special bilingual schools that offer Hawaiian immersion programs. Hawaiian is a Polynesian language.

The following Hawaiian sentences, with their English translations, are about a girl named Mele and a boy named Keone:

1. He has seven elder brothers. Ehiku ona kaikuaana.
2. Mele has one brother. Ekahi o Mele kaikunane.
3. Keone has one younger brother. Ekahi o Keone kaikaina.
4. Mele has no elder sisters. Aohe o Mele kaikuaana.
5. Keone has no sisters. Aohe o Keone kaikuahine.
6. I have one canoe. Ekahi ou waa.
7. Mele has no younger sisters. Aohe o Mele kaikaina.

A: There are two possible English translations for the following Hawaiian sentence. What are they?

Aohe ou kaikuaana.

B: Translate the following sentence into English and indicate who is speaking, Mele or Keone:

Aohe ou kaikuahine.