Thomas Payne

Endo is a Nilo Saharan language of the Southern Nilotic family. It is spoken by approximately 45,000 people in the Rift Valley of Central Kenya. There are 61 distinct indigenous languages spoken in Kenya today.

Endo is a language for which "tone" is very important. The different tones are written as marks above some letters. For example, the letters , and are all pronounced with high tone. The letters , and are all pronounced with low tone. The letters and have a "falling tone." That is, the tone starts high and ends low. The letter is pronounced with low tone in kind of a "breathy" voice. If there is no mark over a letter, it is pronounced with "mid tone," half way in between high and low.

As with many people groups around the world, stories are very important in the everyday life of the Endo people. Instead of watching television or going to movies, Endo families spend hours in the evenings reciting and creating folk stories about a time in history when animals could talk. The following are some sentences out of an Endo folk story, followed by their English translations. In this story, the main characters are Elephant and Hare:

    1. Kcho Plyn. 'Elephant came.'
    2. Kcho Kplkw. 'Hare came.'
    3. Klch Kplkw Plyn. 'Hare said to Elephant . . .'
    4. Klch Plyn Kplkw. 'Hare said to Elephant . . .'
    5. Klch Kplkw Plyn. 'Elephant said to Hare . . .'
    6. Klch Plyn Kplkw. 'Elephant said to Hare . . .'
    7. Kpka pch. 'People arrived.'
    8. Kro pch. 'People saw him/her.'
    9. Kro pch. 'He/she saw people.'

Your first task is to translate the following into English:

    10. Kro Kplkw
    11. Kro Kplkw
Now, there are two ways to say each of the following two English sentences in Endo. In this part of the puzzle you must construct the two Endo sentences by selecting each word from the drop-down lists. Remember that the forms of the words and the order are important:
    People said to Elephant . . . 1st translation:
      2nd translation:
    Hare said to people . . . 1st translation:
      2nd translation:
The following English sentences have only one Endo translation each. If the translation has only two words, select the correct words in the first two positions, and choose "--none--" for the third word:
    He/she said to Hare . . .
    Elephant saw him/her.