by A. E. Kibrik

Archi is one of 25 languages spoken high in the mountains of Daghestan, a semi-autonomous region within the Russian Federation. With less than 1000 speakers, Archi is one of the world's many seriously endangered languages. However, Archi is still used on a daily basis, and speakers maintain a rich tradition of oral folklore and mythology. As you work through this puzzle you will find that the grammar of Archi is very different from that of English or other European languages.

The following are some Archi sentences and their English translations (Note: the symbols "I" and apostrophe represent special sounds of Archi):

1. Diya verkurshi vi. The father is falling down.
2. HoIn h'oti irkkurshi bi. The cow is seeking the grass.
3. Boshor baba dirkkurshi vi. The man is seeking the aunt.
4. Shusha erkurshi i. The bottle is falling down.
5. HoIn borcirshi bi. The cow is standing.
6. Diyamu buva dark'arshi di. The mother is left by the father.
7. Buvamu dogi birkkurshi bi. The donkey is sought by the mother.
8. Dadamu h'oti irkkurshi i. The grass is sought by the uncle.
9. Lo orcirshi i. The child is standing.

Your first task is to translate the following Archi sentences into English:

10. Lo hoIn birkkurshi vi.
11. Diya boshor vark'arshi vi.

Now, the next task is to translate the following English sentences into Archi:

12. The uncle is sought by the aunt.
13. The donkey is falling down.
14. The mother is leaving the father.
Your score: